Sabtu, 25 Juni 2016

Biografi Imam Nawawi

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Biografi Imam Nawawi

Al-Imam al-Allamah Abu Zakaria Muhyuddin bin Syaraf an-Nawawi ad-Dimasyqi (الإمام العلامة أبو زكريا محيي الدين بن شرف النووي الدمشقي), atau lebih dikenal sebagai Imam Nawawi, adalah salah seorang ulama besar mazhab Syafi'i. Ia lahir di desa Nawa, dekat kota Damaskus, pada tahun 631 H dan wafat pada tahun 24 Rajab 676 H. Kedua tempat tersebut kemudian menjadi nisbat nama dia, an-Nawawi ad-Dimasyqi. Ia adalah seorang pemikir muslim di bidang fiqih dan hadits.

Imam Nawawi pindah ke Damaskus pada tahun 649 H dan tinggal di distrik Rawahibiyah. Di tempat ini dia belajar dan sanggup menghafal kitab at-Tanbih hanya dalam waktu empat setengah bulan. Kemudian dia menghafal kitab al-Muhadzdzabb pada bulan-bulan yang tersisa dari tahun tersebut, dibawah bimbingan Syaikh Kamal Ibnu Ahmad.

Semasa hidupnya dia selalu menyibukkan diri dengan menuntut ilmu, menulis kitab, menyebarkan ilmu, ibadah, wirid, puasa, dzikir, sabar atas terpaan badai kehidupan. Pakaian dia adalah kain kasar, sementara serban dia berwarna hitam dan berukuran kecil.

Guru-guru Imam Nawawi

Sang Imam belajar pada guru-guru yang amat terkenal seperti Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad Al-Ashari, Zainuddin bin Abdud Daim, Imaduddin bin Abdul Karim Al-Harastani, Zainuddin Abul Baqa, Khalid bin Yusuf Al-Maqdisi An-Nabalusi dan Jamaluddin Ibn Ash-Shairafi, Taqiyuddin bin Abul Yusri, Syamsuddin bin Abu Umar. Dia belajar fiqih hadits (pemahaman hadits) pada asy-Syaikh al-Muhaqqiq Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi Al-Andalusi. Kemudian belajar fiqh pada Al-Kamal Ishaq bin Ahmad bin usman Al-Maghribi Al-Maqdisi, Syamsuddin Abdurrahman bin Nuh dan Izzuddin Al-Arbili serta guru-guru lainnya.
Murid-murid Imam Nawawi

Tidak sedikit ulama yang datang untuk belajar ke Iman Nawawi. Di antara mereka adalah al-Khatib Shadruddin Sulaiman al-Ja’fari, Syihabuddin al-Arbadi, Shihabuddin bin Ja’wan, Alauddin al-Athar dan yang meriwayatkan hadits darinya Ibnu Abil Fath, Al-Mazi dan lainnya.

Notable students

Alauddin bin Attar,
Ibn Abbas Ahmad bin Ibrahim,
Abul-Abbas Al-Ja'fari,
Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Farah,
Rashid Ismail bin Mu'allim Al-Hanafi,
Abu Abdullah Al-Hanbali,
AbulAbbas Al-Wasti,
Jamaluddin Sulaiman bin Omar Az-Zar'i,
AbulFaraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Abdul-Hamid AlMaqdisi,
Badr Muhammad bin Ibrahim, Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr,
Ash-Shihab Muhammad bin Abdul-Khaliq,
Hibatullah Al-Barizi,
Abul-Hajjaj Yusuf bin Az-Zaki

Karya

Imam Nawawi meninggalkan banyakkarya ilmiah yang terkenal. Jumlahnya sekitar empat puluh kitab, diantaranya: Dalam bidang hadits:

Al-Arba'in An-Nawawiyah (الأربعين النووية), kumpulan 40 -tepatnya 42- hadits penting.[2]
Riyadhus Shalihin (رياض الصالحين),[3] kumpulan hadits mengenai etika, sikap dan tingkah laku yang saat ini banyak digunakan di dunia Islam.
Al-Minhaj (Syarah Shahih Muslim), (شرح صحيح مسلم), penjelasan kitab Shahih Muslim bin al-Hajjaj.[4]
At-Taqrib wat Taysir fi Ma’rifat Sunan Al-Basyirin Nadzir. (التقريب والتيسير لمعرفة سنن البشير النذير), pengantar studi hadits.

Dalam bidang fiqih:

Minhaj ath-Thalibin (منهاج الطالبين وعمدة المفتين في فقه الإمام الشافعي).
Raudhatuth Thalibin,
Al-Majmu` Syarhul Muhadzdzab (المجموع شرح المهذب), panduan hukum Islam yang lengkap.
Matn al-Idhah fi al-Manasik (متن الإيضاح في المناسك), membahas tentang haji.

Dalam bidang bahasa:

Tahdzibul Asma’ wal Lughat.

Dalam bidang akhlak:

At-Tibyan fi Adab Hamalah al-Quran (التبيان في آداب حملة القرآن).
Bustanul Arifin,
Al-Adzkar (الأذكار المنتخبة من كلام سيد الأبرار), kumpulan doa Rasulullah.[5]

Dan lain-lain:

Tahdzib al-Asma (تهذيب الأسماء).
Ma Tamas Ilaihi Hajah al-Qari li Shahih al-Bukhari (ما تمس إليه حاجة القاري لصـحيح البـخاري).
Tahrir al-Tanbih (تحرير التنبيه).
Adab al-Fatwa wa al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti (آداب الفتوى والمفتي والمستفتي).
At-Tarkhis bi al-Qiyam (الترخيص بالقيام لذوي الفضل والمزية من أهل الإسلام).

Sumber

Education

He had no academic or scholarly atmosphere and there were no religious academies or institutes where one could earn excellence in religious learning, so his father took him to Damascus, which was considered the center of learning and scholarship, and the students from far and wide gathered there for schooling. During that period, there were more than three hundred institutes, colleges and universities in Damascus. Imam Nawawi joined Madrasah Rawahiyah which was affiliated with the Ummvi University. The founder and patron of this Madrasah was a trader named Zakiuddin Abul-Qassim who was known as Ibn Rawahah. Madrasah was named after him. Noted and eminent teachers of the period taught in that Madrasah. Imam Nawawi says, "I studied in this institution for two years. During my stay in Madrasah Rawahiyah, I never had complete rest and lived on the limited food supplied by the institution." As a routine he used to sleep very little at night. When it became irresistible as a human being, he would lean and slumber for a while against the support of books. After a short duration he would again be hard at his scholastic pursuits.

Life as a scholar

He studied in Damascus from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage in 1253 he settled there as a private scholar. From a young age he showed signs of great intelligence, and so his father paid for a good education. As a judge, he was much sought after for advice and adjudication of disputes.

Death and legacy

He died at Nawa at a relatively young age, having never married.

An-Nawawi's lasting legacy is his contribution to hadith literature through his momentous works Forty Hadiths and Riyadh as-Saaliheen.[12] This made him respected in all madhabs, despite of him being of Shafi'i jurisprudence.[13] Despite being Asharite in aqidah, he is respected among Salafis and Atharis.[13] According to Al-Dhahabi, Imam Nawawi's concentration and absorption in academic love gained proverbial fame. He had devoted all his time for learning and scholarship. Other than reading and writing, he spent his time contemplating on the interacted and complex issues and in finding their solutions.[citation needed] Sheikh Mohiuddin expresses his impression about Imam Nawawi as thus:

Imaam an-Nawawi had three distinctive commendable qualities in his person. If anybody has only one out of these three, people turn to him in abundance for guidance. First, having knowledge and its dissemination. Second, to evade completely from the worldly inclinations, and the third, inviting to all that is good (Islam) enjoining virtue and forbidding vice. Imaam an-Nawawi had all three in him.

Destruction of tomb

In 2015, during the ongoing Syrian Civil War, his tomb was demolished by rebels linked to Al Nusra.

Courtesy

Dapatkan buku-buku Islam karya A. Fatih Syuhud di sini. Konsultasi agama kirim via email: alkhoirot@gmail.com